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than the light masses and lighter than the shadows. To give additional relief the back-ground may be darkest behind the lightest part of the figure and vice versa, but this does not necessarily add to its grace or grandeur.

Now follows the toning or half-tint, and in doing this it must be remembered that no lines are apparent in natural shadow, and that therefore while the shading must be made to appear smooth at a little distance, the lines which compose it should be carried in the direction of the surface and thereby assist in indicating form.

Nor must any hard strokes be seen, but the lights and shadows must be lost in each other without any apparent separation.

The degree of tint on the several parts of the body will be regulated by their position in regard to the light, the slightest inclination downwards or from the light in any direction will increase it ; so that by the half-tints the exact inclination of the limbs must be determined.

It may be observed that if the head is erect the face will be gradually darker towards the chin, a fact which is very often overlooked, but without which it is almost impossible to obtain sweetness of expression.

The drawing now possesses all its softness and delicacy with- out strength, and to obtain this it only remains to add the depths and modify the broad-shadows. Shade is not a positive quality, but the absence of light, and therefore scarcely two depths will be similar ; that nearest the eye will of course be the strongest, but the whole of the broad-shade will be affected more or less by reflections from the objects which surround it. (Plate 7, fig. 3.) *

* “The surfaces of globular or convex bodies have as great a variety of lights and shadows as the bodies that surround them” -Leonardo Da Vinci.


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