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In the chapter on the principles of Outline the Pupil was directed how to draw a line with correctness and decision. He must now learn to apply his proficiency to the drawing of the figure ; and, to commence with, portions of it may be copied from drawings in outline in the following way, a method which need not be discontinued in any future state of proficiency.

Before drawing the detail it is necessary to find out the general form of the object and the space it is to occupy on the paper.

This may be done by regarding it as an angular mass without meaning, and as such to represent it, straight lines being carried from one prominent point to another, giving it the appearance of a block of marble before the chisel has indicated the intended form. Examples of thus drawing " in the square " are given in Plates 5 & 6, from the face and foot.

In Plate 6 the method is exemplified in its different stages ; fig. I showing the general form and intended size of the drawing, in the marking out of which great care must be taken, as subsequent accuracy depends very much upon it; fig. 2 shows the same further carried out, the more minute parts being formed in the same way ; in fig. 3 the rounded form has been drawn with the assistance of the former which is now rubbed out. In this the beginner is apt to be deceived and represent forms too much exaggerated, a fault which will be remedied by observation and practice. The lines underneath the parts may be made darker to indicate shadow.

The features, extremities, and the whole figure may be outlined in this way, good patterns of which may easily be obtained ; and much assistance will be gained, in drawing the figure, by ruling a perpendicular line through it, which will materially assist the eye in judging of its inclination and proportions, as in Plate 8.

When the Pupil has practised sufficiently to make good copies, he may commence drawing from plaster casts, always adhering to the practice, before recommended, of first placing the dots and then drawing a single line.

The remarks then made apply equally to another lazy habit among beginners, that of sketching in with charcoal an outline of the thickness of a quarter or half an inch, an example of which is given in Plate 7, fig 1 ; indeed it would be better on account of the looseness of charcoal, not to adopt its use until delicacy and firmness of hand have been acquired.

In outlining the extremities from casts the same directions must be followed as given in reference to Plate 6. Here however the beginner will find himself somewhat at a loss, not having the shape of the paper or anything else to guide him ; and from not being accustomed to regard an object in its. reference to drawing he will be much puzzled to know what he sees and how to begin.


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