The eyebrow is arched in doubt, surprise or fear, laughter or admiration; contracted and lowered in rage, despair and jealousy; and contracted and raised toward the inner extremities in grief or pain.
The eye in conjunction with the brow is capable of almost infinite expression. In devotion it is raised, and so also in- voluntarily in sleep and death, and often in bodily pain and extreme weakness or fainting. It is compressed and wrinkled during laughter or crying, and widely opened in fear or surprise. A large full eye has always been considered indispensable to beauty, a small one being characteristic of acuteness, cunning or selfishness, rather than of nobleness and benevolence ; not an eye however which projects beyond or is level with the forehead, for this generally betokens want of intellect; nor one which, sinking deeply in the forehead, speaks of suffering ; but one which while it retains its fullness, recedes sufficiently to receive a shadow from the brow which shall give value to its brilliancy and expression.
The nose, in those who do not abandon its use to the detriment of their lungs, is the organ of respiration, as well as of smell, and as such it indicates the motions of the chest, especially in violent passion or fear. This feature is less subject than the eyes and mouth to changes consequent on mental influences, and its general form becomes a matter rather of Ethnological study.
Not so with the mouth, which is formed for the various actions of mastication, carnivorous and herbivorous, as well as for speech and expression. Compressed, it indicates decision of character or resolution of purpose ; but open, vacancy and its misapplication to the purpose of breathing. Its angles are lowered and the under lip raised to express contempt, peevishness, discontent and jealousy. In rage the angles are drawn upwards and backwards, exposing the canine teeth. In devotion the lips are slightly parted, and in extreme fear and laughter they are violently opened.
The general character of the lower part of the face depends much on the relative proportion given to the instruments of mastication or speech. If the former predominates it will par- take of the brute ; if the latter, of intellectual man.
Hair short, strong and erect becomes a man, while long or smooth it gives an appearance of weakness or meanness. To the female head long and flowing hair is an invaluable ornament, but its disposition must remain a matter of taste or dependant on the formation of the head and character of the face.
The beard is characteristic of age and therefore conveys an expression of dignity, experience and repose. Moustaches are also useful in adding force to the more powerful emotions.
In concluding these few remarks on expression, let it be remembered that the power of the countenance depends not so much on what the features are, as on what they express. They may be well formed and faultless in their proportions, but they may greet every friend and every event with one expression, and in their insipidity cease to be interesting and so cease to charm; whereas even an ordinary face when it speaks the language of the soul and reveals its love, its sympathy, joy and sorrow, becomes elevated and endeared, and so constitutes that which to us is the power and purpose of beauty. It is for this reason that beauty has been said to consist in "capability of expression."